On the top of the Red Mountain in Lhasa, Tibet, China, there is a world-famous ancient palace-style building complex. This is the Potala Palace, which was built in the seventh century and has a history of more than 1,300 years. China s famous ancient buildings and national key cultural relics protection units. Putala is a Sanskrit transliteration of Putuoluojia, a resort for Guanyin. It was founded in the early years of the Tang Dynasty when Songtsan Gambo. The Potala Palace is more than 3,700 meters above sea level, covering a total area of 360,000 square meters, 360 meters in length from east to west, 270 meters in width from north to south, 13 floors of the main building, and 117 meters in height. It is the highest altitude in the world, integrating palaces, castles and monasteries. Magnificent building.
The Potala Palace is built on the mountain, the palaces are stacked, the towering towering, and the majestic towering. Its architectural art embodies the characteristics of the traditional stone and wooden structure of the Tibetan dwellings and the traditional beams, golden roofs, and moss of the Han nationality. In the space combination, the courtyards overlap, the corridors are curved, and the measures are tailored to the local conditions. The main and subordinates are distinct, which not only highlights the main building, but also coordinates the subordinate groups of buildings. Visually enhancing the sense of towering upwards is a miracle in the history of world architecture.
According to legend, the Tibetan Tibetan King Songtsan Gambo was a good believer in Buddhism. After moving the capital to Lhasa, he often chanted prayers on a mountain near Lhasa, and named the mountain Putala. Putala is a Sanskrit phonetic translation , translated as Putuo or Putuo, originally referring to the place where Guanyin Bodhisattva lived. After Songtsan Gampo married the Princess Wencheng of the Tang Dynasty in 641 AD, he rejoiced and built the Potala Palace for the princess. The Potala Palace that was built that year was 9 stories high, with a total of 999 palace rooms, and a total of 1,000 practice rooms on the mountain, which were grand and magnificent. However, the time has changed, and the Potala Palace has suffered from thunder , electricity, and war. It has survived vicissitudes and is in ruins. Only the Fawang Cave and the main hall, Papalakang, remain. The current Potala Palace has been rebuilt since the 17th century.
The main building of the Potala Palace is divided into two parts in terms of its functions, one is the place where people live and political activities, and the other is the spiritual pagoda of the past and various types of Buddhist temples.
The first part focuses on the White House. The White House was built in 1645 and lasted 8 years. A huge temple was built eastward and westward around the original Guanyin Hall in Songtsan Gambo. The walls of the entire temple are painted white, and when viewed from a distance, it is particularly eye-catching. People call it the White House. The White House is 7 storeys high, and the Cochin Xia (East Hall) located in the center of the 4th floor covers an area of 717 square meters and is supported by 38 pillars. It is the largest hall of the Potala Palace. And other major religious and political activities. The 5th and 6th floors are regent office and living rooms. The highest floor (the seventh floor ) is the Winter Palace, which has a large area for daylight. From morning to night, the sun is shining, commonly known as the Sunlight Hall. The luxurious furnishings and golden bowls and jade bowls in the hall show the noble status of the master. Outside the palace, there is al arge balcony from which you can overlook the entire Lhasa city. In the distance are rolling hills, and the beautiful Lhasa River is like a ribbon floating from the sky. Nearby is a patch of fields, long trees, green tree cottages, and the golden splendor of the ancient Jokhang Temple.
The second part is mainly concentrated in the Red Palace. The Red Palace was built in 1690. At that time, Emperor Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty specially sent more than 100 Han, Manchu and Mongolian craftsmen from the mainland to Tibet to participate in the vast project of expanding the Potala Palace.. The main building of the Red Palace is various types of Buddhist temples and spiritual towers. There are 8 spirit towers in the palace that store the magical bodies of all the worlds. Among them, the fifth tower is the largest, the most gorgeous, with a height of 14.85 meters. The tower body is covered with gold skin and inlaid with beads. 18,677 pearls, gems, corals, amber, agate, etc. The largest palace in the Red Palace, Sixi Pingcuo (Western Palace), has an area of 725 meters, and the plaque of Yonglian Chudi given by Qianlong is hung high above the center of the palace, with a throne. There is also a pair of large brocades presented by Emperor Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty, whi ch is one of the treasures of the Potala Palace. The Triumphal Three Realms Palace is the highest palace in the Red Palace. On the side of the bookshelf, there is also a Beijing version of the Danzhuer scripture given by Emperor Yongzheng to the Seventh Century. At the westernmost point of the Red Palace is the 13th-century Pagoda Hall, which is 14 meters high. It is said that the mandala in the hall is made of more than 200,000 pearls. The exquisite and luxurious decoration inside the Potala Palace is on the one hand a treasure house of Tibetan art, on the other hand it also reflects the huge difference between the old Tibetan nobles and serfs who accounted for more than 95% of the population. The Red House is mainly a place for religious activities and the pagoda, and the White House is the living room and the center of political activities. The two colors of red and white are integrated, which fully reflects the social characteristics of the integration of politics and religion in old Tibet. Since the completion of the White House, the fifth century has been emigrated from Drepung Monastery until his death. Since then, the Potala Palace has been used as a place of residence and religious activities, so the Potala Palace has become a holy place for worship and worship.
For more than 300 years, the Potala Palace has been the center of Tibet s state-religion-in-one regime. It has a rich collection of historical relics and handicrafts. It is a museum of Tibetan history, culture and art . The mural is a must for the Potala Palace. The murals of the Potala Palace can be divided into 4 categories: religious stories; customs and customs; biographies; historical events. The expansion of the Potala Palace in history is vividly recorded by the murals ; the murals of Princess Wencheng entering Tibet reproduce the scene of the harmony between the Han and Tibetan nationalities in the seventh century AD; on the wall of the West Hall, I saw him entering Beijing in 1652 The mural of Emperor Shunzhi; in the Hall of the 13th Century Pagoda, there is a scene where the 13th King enters Beijing to meet Emperor Guangxu and Empress Cixi. The palace also has nearly a thousand stupas, tens of thousands of statues, a large number of Thangkas, as well as precious cultural reli cs such as the Baye Sutra and the Golden Pearl Sutra. The golden books, golden seals, jade seals, and fatalities conferred by the emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties, indicating the relationship between the Tibetan local government and the central government in history, are also treasured in the palace. These tangible cultural relics are the historical witness of China s formation of a multi-ethnic unified country. There are also many gorgeous and exquisite card cushions, canopies, magical instruments, tent curtains, brocade forgings, gold and silver utensils, porcelain and stone wares in the Potala Palace, which are dazzling and stunning.
After the peaceful liberation of Tibet in 1951, the central government attached great importance to the protection of the Potala Palace. In 1961, the State Council promulgated it as a national key cultural relics protection unit, with special funds for maintenance every year. However, this magnificent palace has not been overhauled for more than 300 years since its reconstruction, and the situation is serious. In 1985, the State Council decided to allocate huge sums of money to carry out large-scale repairs to the Potala Palace. This is the largest investment in the protection of ancient cultural relics and buildings since the founding of the People s Republic of China.
Sunny On October 11, 1989, the weather was fine and the Potala Palace chanted long. A young Sera Monastery named Jianzanqun waved the first pick of the maintenance project of the Potala Palace. As the first man to pick a pickaxe, Jianzan Qunjue was selected by traditional Tibetan divination. He has good facial features, his parents are alive, and the zodiac is auspicious. The entire repair process of the Potala Palace strictly adheres to the Tibetan traditional customs and religious rituals. Thanks to the solidarity and cooperation of Tibetan and Han engineering staff, the maintenance project was successfully completed in September 1994 with a total cost of 53 million yuan. The high-altitude pearl of the Potala Palace once again dazzled, attracting more and more Chinese and foreign tourists to come and visit. The Potala Palace is now on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
There are eight spirit towers of the fifth, seventh to thirteenth, among which the fifth tower is the most luxurious. The fifth-century spiritual tower is 14.86 meters high and is the tallest tower in the hall. The tower is wrapped in gold and dazzled with jewellery. This tower alone consumed 112,000 gold and countless jewels. The Tibetans call the fifth-century pagoda Tibetan Eyes, which means that the tower is worth half a world.
The East and West Sunlight Palace is located at the highest point of the White House, and it is the palace of the past. The sun shines here all day long, overlooking Lhasa from the West Sunlight Palace.
The Dharma King Cave is the earliest building of the Potala Palace, and it was also the place where Songtsan Gambo practiced. The swaying lights in the cave reflect a bit of mystery. The statues of Songtsan Gambo, Princess Wencheng and the ministers seem to take you into the history of more than 1,300 years ago.
The mural art of the Potala Palace can be described as the highest, with its number and subject matter reaching a surprising level. Nearly seven hundred works in the second-floor wall gallery of the Red Palace West Hall are all excellent works in murals. These murals have various styles, smooth lines, harmony and beauty, and are fascinating. Among the many historical themes, marrying Princess Wencheng, the fifth emperor to see Emperor Shunzhi, and the thirteenth emperor to see Emperor Guangxu are also masterpieces of history and art.
The treasures in the Potala Palace are countless, especially the three-dimensional mandala and pearl tower. Many other ancient works of art, Thangka, scriptures, Buddha statues, etc. are all priceless treasures. It is no exaggeration to say that the Potala Palace is both a museum of history and a temple of art. It is a symbol of Lhasa and even Tibet.
Putala means Putuo Mountain. Putuo Mountain is the dwelling place of Guanyin Bodhisattva in Buddhism. In Tibetan legend, Songtsan Gampo is the world s incarnation of Guanyin Bodhisattva.
Part of the White House is the place where government affairs and living are handled. It is also the location of the former Tibetan local government office. The largest hall, the Tsomuqin Mansion (the East Hall), is the place where the Qing Minister stationed in Tibet presided over the bed, the ceremony of pro-government, and major political and religious activities. The highest place in the White House is the East and West Sunlight Halls, which are daily living places. Because the sun shines here all day, it is called the East and West Sunlight Halls. There are two sets of dormitories in the east and west, and the halls are luxuriously furnished. Located on the 4th floor, the Hall of Perfection is a place for major religious and political events such as sitting on bed and pro-political ceremony.
The main building of the Red Palace is the Ling Pagoda Hall and various types of Buddhist temples. There are 8 spiritual towers in the palace. There are spiritual towers containing the remains of the fifth to the thirteenth (except the sixth). The body of the tower is wrapped in gold skin and inlaid with precious stones. Among them, the towers of the fifth and thirteenth are the most luxurious. Five celestial towers cost 110,000 gold. The tower consists of a tower base, a tower bottle, and a spire. The tower body is covered with gold skin and is inlaid with pearl jewels. It is said that after the death of almost every life, the body should be coated with salt to dehydrate it, and then coated with spices. After drying, the body is stored in a tower bottle, and the outside is sealed with gold. This is a type of burial in Tibet. Only Tibet and Dahutuktu (Mongolian, or the living Buddha) can enjoy the treatment of pagodas. Only the God King can enjoy the treatment of the Golden Spiri t Tower, while other living Buddhas have to use silver, bronze, and earthy spirit towers according to their status.
Yongdong Courtyard: It is a flat and wide platform in front of the main entrance of the White House. It covers an area of more than 1,500 square meters. The west is the main building of the White House, the east is the monk school, and the north and south are housing.
White House Porch: This porch has the gate leading to the White House, with murals painted on all four walls, of which the north wall is painted with the picture of Princess Wencheng entering Tibet, and the south wall is painted with the message of Feng Sangjie Gyatso in his later years..
There is a silent and successful hall in Tongdong: it is the main hall of the White House and it is also the largest hall in the White House. It covers an area of 717 square meters and contains 34 columns. A throne is set on the north side, and the plaque of Qing Dynasty Emperor Tongzhi Zhenxi Suixin is hung above. The walls of the hall are full of murals depicting religious stories and historical figures. Important celebrations such as the original bed are held here.
Yunxi Nikko Hall: This hall was an early-built living palace, located on the top floor of the White House. It consists of Fudi Miaoxuan Palace, Fuzu Yuju Palace, Xizu Jueding Palace, Sleeping Palace and Guardian Hall.
Dongdong Nikko Hall: This hall was an extended living palace in the late thirteenth century, located on the top floor of the White House. It is composed of the Xi s Bright Palace, the Everlasting Ford Palace, the Hufa Palace, the Longevity Palace , and the Sleeping Palace.
Maitreya Temple: The main statue of Maitreya Buddha. There are three statues of longevity on the left and the other, the fairy Zhuzhuoma, etc. There are other Buddha statues and pagodas along the hall, and there is an eighth throne on the west side .
Jinding District: Jinding District is located at the highest point of the Potala Palace. The golden dome refers to the sacred gold roof of the Ling Pagoda Hall and the main hall for the Buddha. Around the Jinding District, there are still decorations such as warp towers and prayer flags.
Mandala Temple: The center of the hall is the Sanwangduiba Mandala, the east is the Deque Mandala, and the west is the Jijie Mandala. Sangwang Dupa (dense), Deque (Shengle), and Jijie (Daweide) are Tantric deities. Walls are painted all around the hall, mostly Buddhist celebrities and temples and teaching history.
Pu Shu wins the Three Realms Hall: The hall enshrines a long live and long lived tablet in Tibetan, Han, Manchu and Mongolian. Above the tablet is a portrait of the Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty. Surrounded by statues of Vajrayana and Tsongkhapa. There are still eleven-faced Guanyin statues made by the thirteenth century in silver. This is an important Buddhist temple in the Red Palace, where some major events are held.
Longevity Music Collection Hall: This hall is equipped with the throne of the sixth generation. Thousands of immortal Buddha statues are enshrined in the shrines along the wall. The temple also enshrines more than 2,000 Buddha statues such as the god of Egazedi and the statue of Tsongkhapa.
Thirteenth-century pagoda hall: The thirteenth-century pagoda is 12.97 meters high, and there are tens of thousands of jewels inlaid on the top of the pagoda wrapped in high-quality gold. Various instruments and sacrifice are set in the hall. A thirteenth -century Tudeng Gyatso sits in front of a pearl tower (mandala) made of 200,000 pearls. The walls of the third floor are all biography murals of the thirteenth life.
Grand Master s Hall: The hall is mainly dedicated to statues of famous Tibetan masters. There are still thousands of statues and statues of the Tubo dynasty, such as Zanpu and Sage, and hundreds of stupas.
Temple of the Seventh-generation Spirit Tower: The Seven-story Tower is dedicated to the center of the temple, and there are still sitting statues of the seventh-generation Gesangjiacuo, as well as Buddhist altars and scriptures.
Temple of Goddess of Mercy Guanyin: The plaque of the Emperor Qing Shu Futian Miaoguo is hung above the hall door. The sandalwood woody Guanyin statue enshrined in the center of the hall is the deity of Songtsan Gambo, a rare treasure of the Potala Palace, and there are many precious Buddha statues and pagodas such as the six-sided alloy King Yan Luo.
VIII Spirit Tower Hall: The hall mainly worships the eighth descended Bai Jiacuo sitting statue and its spiritual tower, and in front of the spiritual tower are eight Swiss, eight auspicious, seven political treasures.
Nine Kings Pagoda Hall: The main hall contains seated statues of Nine Kings Pagoda, Nine Dragons Gyatso and Tsongkhapa, and there are also bookshelves.
The Temple of Shakya Nengren: The main statue of Buddhist ancestor Shakyamuni, with the statues of eight disciples arranged on both sides. The hall is equipped with a throne of the Seventh Century and holds hand-written Ganjur classics.
Wuliangshou Buddha Hall: In the middle of the hall, 9 statues of Wuliangshou Buddha and 1 statue of White Tara and Green Tara are enshrined. Murals are painted all around the palace.
Dharma King Cave: It is a building of the Tubo period in the seventh century. Songtsan Gambo, respected by Tibetan Buddhists and Buddhists as the Dharma King, practiced there in the same year. Inside the hall are statues such as Songtsan Gambo, Princess Wencheng , Princess Chizun, and Tibetan Minister Gar Dongzan (Lu Dongzan) and Tunmi Sambuza, who are said to be the founders of the Tibetan language. There are still early precious murals.
Bronze Bronze Hall: The Buddha statues enshrined in this hall are all cast bronze (alloy). There are about 3,000 statues such as Shakyamuni and Wuliangguang, among which there are hundreds of statues made in the mainland by Daming Xuande and Yongle.
Yunxi has a complete hall: the largest hall of the Potala Palace, with an area of 725 square meters and 44 pillars. A throne is set at the west end, and the upper plaque of Qing Dynasty Emperor Qianlong Yushu Yonglian is hung high above. The murals around the hall are painted with an area of 280 square meters. Among them, the frescoes of Emperor Shunzhi of Qing Dynasty who saw the fifth emperor in Beijing are extremely precious works of art and historical materials. There are wooden carved hollow Buddha statues and various animal and floral patterns in the wooden beams of the hall.
Yan Chi Ming Hall (Ren Zeng Lakang): The main statue of the Ningma ancestor of the Tibetan Buddhism is a silver statueof the lotus ancestor. On the east side are eight statues of the ancestors of the lotus ancestors, and on the west side are eight statues of the lotus morphing. There are still 8 silver-casting dead pagodas in the hall, and the Ganzhuer Sutra carved by Di Sangjie Gyatso is stored on the bookshelf.
Hall of the Five Spirits Tower: The hall is 3 stories high with 16 columns. The center of the hall is 12.6 meters high. The tower body is covered with gold skin and costs 3721 kilograms of gold. There are still ten and twelve spirit pagodas in the hall, as well as eight silver sunken stupas studded with various jewels.
Hermitage Hall: In the middle of the hall, the statue of Shakyamuni in gold and the statue of Silver V are juxtaposed. On the right side are the statues of the first to fourth generations. To the west is the statue of Yarulai, a pharmacist . Adjacent to the Western Wall is the eleventh statue of Kezhujiacuo and its pagoda. Tibetan scriptures are stored on the bookshelves on the east and north walls.
[Tickets] are 100 yuan each in low season and 300 yuan in high season. The off-season execution time is from November 1 to April 30 each year, and the peak season is from May 1 to October 31 each year. Tickets for the Golden Dome are 10 yuan, the jewelry exhibition is 10 yuan, and the Ling Tower Hall is 10 yuan each.
The Potala Palace is open every day. The opening hours are from 9:00 to 16:30. It is closed at noon and reopens at 15:30 in the afternoon. Monday, Wednesday, and Friday are slightly longer. Saturdays and Sundays are shorter than before.
The internal structure of the Potala Palace is complex, with many statues and temples. Just follow the tour guide. Among them, the main offering hall, Fawang cave, and the Palace of the Five Spirits Tower cannot be missed. If you are not accompanied by a guide, you only need to follow the directions of the arrows and the circled circle.
The temple hall is relatively cold, so please bring a coat with you even in summer. In addition, it is very difficult to find a toilet in the Potala Palace, it is best to fix it before the visit.
Local pilgrims worship the Potala Palace from the main entrance along the zigzag stone steps. And most travelers will choose to walk from the west gate to the top of the mountain and then all the way down. It is quite physically demanding, so it is recommended that people with physical problems and altitude sickness go in the opposite direction. You can take a taxi to the top of the Potala Palace, enter the Potala Palace from the entrance to the west gate of the hilltop, and then walk down the mountain, which can save a lot of physical energy.
Transportation Potala Palace Transportation: It is recommended that tourists take a taxi from Houshan to the top of the Potala Palace, and then walk down the Potala Palace from the top. The fare is about 10 yuan.
⑷ ⑷, there are fewer toilets in the cloth palace and it is difficult to find them. It is better to settle at the entrance before visiting. In addition, the toilet at the back door of the palace is very special, and it is also a scene, don t miss it.
The annual precipitation in Lhasa is 200-510 mm, concentrated in June-September, with heavy night rain, the highest temperature is 28 ° C, and the lowest temperature is minus 14 ° C. The air is thin, the temperature difference between day and day is dry, and the wind is dry in winter and spring. Relatively speaking, the warm and humid climate in March-October is the best tourist season in Tibet, and usually the May 1st every year is the beginning of the travel season.
Lhasa is the core of Tibet, with good accommodation conditions and many high-end hotels. The four-star Lhasa Hotel (formerly Lhasa Holiday Hotel, the price is about 900 yuan per room), the Lhasa International Hotel, Lhasa Hotel (quasi- four-star), Samsung has Tibet Mansion and Hubei Mansion, and two-star has Nikko Hotel, Himalayan Hotel, Jingu Hotel, Gajilin Hotel, etc.
However, if you are traveling on your own, you only need to choose a mid-range hotel in the city. Double rooms are 30-40 yuan / night / person. The procedures are simple, the price is about 20-25 yuan / person, and there is a telephone and hot water (although the telephone is only available in the city, and the hot water is limited to 1 hour at night). On the door of the hotel room, you can often find out about the trips of the donkeys and callers. When everyone is at random to chat, exchange travel plans and experiences, they often travel together.
Of course, there are also guest houses with Tibetan ethnic characteristics. The well-known Balongxue Hotel has been rated as one of the top ten mountain hotels in the world. There may not be the luxury and comfort of a hotel here..
Price: RMB 40 / room for single room, RMB 70 / room for double room, RMB 180 / room for standard double room, RMB 25 per room for three or four people.
Lhasa is the best place to live and board in Tibet. In the restaurant, mainly Tibetan and Szechuan cuisines are served, and several in-house restaurants also serve Nepali and Indian dishes. The price of each restaurant is similar, but Sichuan cuisine is more expensive than the mainland.
Western-style restaurants are mostly concentrated on Beijing Road, which has a large number of tourists. Almost every restaurant in the hotel serves Western food. Among them, the western food served in the hotel restaurant and restaurant in Badong Xue is of good standard and worth a try; the restaurant in Snowy Hotel has a very nostalgic atmosphere. The Snowfield Hotel is diagonally opposite, facing the Jangji Restaurant at Jokhang Temple Square, which serves Tibetan cuisine. Although the beef-steak steak is extremely tough, the invincible street view of this second-floor restaurant is indeed worth a seat. Bottle of beer, plus a Tibetan dumpling, the Jokhang Temple s beings, enough to make people look for a long time.
Some hotels have Tibetan-style restaurants. If they are willing to pay, they are located on Beijing Middle Road. The Snow Temple in front of Potala is a good choice. You can eat more than 100 yuan for an authentic Tibetan meal. Raw beef can be mixed with sauce. And air-dried two ways to eat. You can also try the local butter tea, there are many tea stalls on the west side of the Potala Palace, but don t drink sweet, it is coaxing foreigners.