Wuyishan heritage is located in the northwest of Fujian Province, China. Its geographical coordinates are: 27 ° 32 ′ 36 ″ – 27 ° 55 ′ 15 ″ n; 117 ° 24 ′ 12 ″ – 118 ° 02 ′ 50 ″ e, with a total area of 99975 ha. According to the different characteristics of the resources in the area, the whole area is divided into four protected areas: Western biodiversity, central JIUQUXI ecology, Eastern natural and cultural landscape, and city village Minyue Wangcheng site.
The western part of Wuyi Mountain is the key area of global biodiversity protection, which is distributed with the most complete, typical and largest subtropical primary forest ecosystem in the same latitude zone of the world. The eastern part of Wuyi Mountain is perfectly integrated with water, and the humanities and nature are organically integrated. It enjoys prosperity with beautiful scenery, long history and culture and numerous cultural relics and historic sites, such as beautiful water, strange peak, valley and dangerous gully The central part is an important area to connect the East and the west, conserve the water source of Jiuqu River and maintain a good ecological environment.
In view of Wuyi Mountain’s natural and cultural resources with the above outstanding significance and universal value, the Chinese Government recommends Wuyi Mountain to apply for the world natural and cultural heritage. Wuyi Mountain was listed in the world heritage list by UNESCO in December 1999 and became the common wealth of all mankind.
1. Wuyishan is an outstanding example of the process of biological evolution and the relationship between human beings and the natural environment
Wuyishan Mountain has preserved the most complete, typical and largest subtropical primary forest ecosystem in the same latitude zone of the world, and developed obvious vertical vegetation belt spectrum: with the increase of altitude, it successively distributed evergreen broad-leaved forest belt (350-1400m, mountain red soil), coniferous broad-leaved transition belt (500-1700m, mountain yellow red soil), temperate coniferous forest belt (1100-1970m, mountain yellow soil) Zhongshan meadow (1700-2158 m mountain yellow red soil), Zhongshan bryophyte dwarf forest belt (1700-1970 m, mountain yellow soil), Zhongshan meadow (1700-2158 m, mountain meadow soil) are five vegetation belts, which are distributed with rare plant communities such as South hemlock, small leaved boxwood, Wuyi Yushan bamboo, almost including all subtropical primary evergreen broad-leaved forest and rock vegetation communities in China.
2. Wuyi Mountain is a key area for global biodiversity conservation and a habitat for rare and endangered species
Wuyi Mountain belongs to the middle subtropical monsoon climate area, where there are many peaks and mountains with great height difference, and the absolute height difference is 1700m. The good ecological environment and special geographical location make it a “natural shelter” for many animals and plants in the process of geographical evolution, and the species resources are extremely rich.
3. Wuyi Mountain has a unique and rare natural landscape, which belongs to the natural beauty zone of rare wind and represents the harmonious unity of human and natural environment
(1) Wuyishan JIUQUXI has its own natural scenery
Jiuqu River originates from the west of Wuyi Mountain with dense forest. It has abundant water and clear water, with a total length of 62.8km. It flows through the ecological protection area in the middle and winds in the Danxia Landform in the East. Under the control of the distribution between mountains and ravines and the deep fracture direction, it forms a deep river curve, which is lingering among mountains and ravines. The 9.5km River curve has a straight-line distance of only 5km and a curvature of 1.9km. Both banks of JIUQUXI are typical monoclinic Danxia landform, with 36 odd peaks and 99 rocks distributed. All peaks and rocks have oblique top, steep body, gentle foot, head up to the East, like horses galloping, with magnificent momentum and various shapes. The superior climate and habitat also cover the peaks with a layer of green. Green vegetation grows on the top of the Piedmont and the rock gap and gully, creating a wonderful scene of “trees grow on stones” and a natural landscape of rare wind.
(2) JIUQUXI scenery is a model of perfect combination of mountain and water
The zigzag Jiuqu stream runs through the peaks of Danya, such as the jade belt with pearls, connecting 36 peaks and 99 rocks. The mountain stands close to the water, and the water flows around the mountain. The height of the peak rock, the width of the river bed, the size of the curvature, the speed of the water flow, the size of the field of view, and the angle of view reach a wonderful degree, which constitute the unique beauty of “one stream runs through the mountains, and two rocks line up the Xianxiu”. The scenery of the stream light and the mountain embodies the traditional Chinese poetic and aesthetic mood. Mountaineering, you can see the clear water and clear stream, wading, you can see the strange peaks and rocks, riding a simple bamboo raft down the stream, you can enjoy the image beauty of magnificent, diverse, and competing for the beautiful; you can taste the color beauty of spring song, birdsong, waves hitting light boats, pole point brown stone, green trees and red flowers; you can see the dynamic beauty of water swimming fish, floating clouds and birds, boatman tourists; you can see the cloud around the mountain peaks, fog lock the peak waist, rain cover the peaks Hazy beauty is like walking in a fantastic landscape gallery, listening to the rich symphony with variations, enjoying the unique yaochi song and dance, enjoying the beautiful poems with rhyme, and being infatuated. This is the essence of Wuyishan’s natural landscape, which is called the world’s unique.
(3) JIUQUXI, Wuyi Mountain, is an outstanding representative of the harmonious unity of humanity and nature
Nature has given Wuyi Mountain a unique and superior natural environment, which has attracted generations of scholars and generals to visit, live in seclusion, write or teach apprentices in the mountains. You come to me. Natural landscape edifies people’s temperament, enlightens people’s wisdom, spreads human activities, develops Wuyi Mountain, and adds luster to natural landscape. The wisdom of ancestors and the presence of scholars left numerous cultural relics on both sides of JIUQUXI River: there are 18 high cliff walls with thousands of years of immortal Jiahe boat coffins; there are 35 academies sites of Zhuxi, Youlu, Xionghe, caiyuanding and other great scholars; there are more than 450 cliff carvings of various dynasties that can be called the treasure house of ancient Chinese calligraphy art, including the prohibition of ancient government and villagers to protect Wuyi Mountains, rivers, animals and plants There are more than 60 temples and sites with monks and Taoism. These relics are scattered all over the place, such as bright gems, which are inlaid in streams, mountain peaks and cave cliffs of Wuyi Mountain. They integrate the wisdom of the ancients, the thoughts of the sages and the labor of the people into the natural landscape, adding a strong cultural atmosphere to Wuyi Mountain, achieving the state of the unity of man and nature, and giving people a harmonious aesthetic feeling. This is extremely rare in many landscapes of our country.
Cultural heritage Wuyishan
From the perspective of history and science, Wuyi Mountain has outstanding and universal value. It can not only provide a unique witness for the ancient civilization and cultural tradition that have disappeared, but also has a direct and substantive connection with the ideological civilization of Neo Confucianism.
1. The cultural relics of “ancient Minyue” and “Minyue nationality” in Wuyishan are the historical witness of the ancient civilization that has disappeared
Wuyi Mountain has rich historical and cultural relics. As early as more than 4000 years ago, there were ancestors working here to earn their living, gradually forming the unique “ancient Min” culture in the corner of China at home and abroad and the subsequent “Minyue” culture, which lasted for more than 2000 years, leaving many cultural relics. The cultural features of this period are mainly reflected in “Jiahe boat coffin”, “Hongqiao board” and the site of Minyue King City in Han Dynasty, covering an area of 480000 m2.
The Jiahe boat coffin and Hongqiao board in the cliff cave in the east of Wuyi Mountain are the funerary remains of ancient ancestors, more than 3000 years ago. The cotton fragments in the coffin are the earliest cotton textile objects found in China. Wuyi Jiahe boat coffin is the longest hanging coffin found in China. Therefore, Wuyi Mountain is considered by archaeologists to be the birthplace of the custom of hanging coffins and burials. In fact, it is a very precious material for studying the history of pre Qin and the ancient min culture that has disappeared.
Covering an area of 480000 m2, the site of Seoul has a high historical and cultural value and research value. It is the most complete ancient city site of Han Dynasty in the south of the Yangtze River in China. It is unique in site selection, architectural technique and style. It is a typical representative of ancient southern cities in China and occupies an important position in the architectural history of China and the world. A large number of precious cultural relics have been unearthed, such as daily pottery, ceramic building materials, writing tiles, iron and bronze wares, which respectively represent the advanced productivity at that time, reflect the highest level of Chinese civilization, and provide important material materials for the study of the rise and fall of the Minyue people in the Han Dynasty and the history of economic and cultural development in the south of the Yangtze River.
2. Zhu Xi and Zhu Zili
Zhu Xi (1130-1200) is the greatest thinker, philosopher and educator in Chinese history after Confucius. He collected the great achievements of Confucius’ following academic thoughts and formed the outstanding representative of Confucianism thought and Culture — Zhu Zi’s Neo Confucianism, which was officially recognized as the official orthodox philosophy. He constructed the thought and theory that had been in the dominant position for more than 700 years from the Song Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty (the 13th to the 20th century). He represented the traditional national spirit with universal significance and influenced far as East Asia, Europe and the United States, becoming East Asia The embodiment of civilization. Up to now, there are still Japanese and Korean Zhuzi studies (Tuixi Studies) abroad, attracting experts and scholars from dozens of countries in the world to devote themselves to the study of Neo Confucianism. In Trier University of Germany, Leiden University of the Netherlands, Stockholm, Sweden, Columbia, Harvard, Hawaii and other universities, there are research institutes studying for the Ph.D. in zhuzixue. In 1982, four international conferences on Zhuzi Li were held in Hawaii, Xiamen, Wuyishan and Taipei to discuss the origin, development and practical influence of Zhuxi’s Neo Confucianism.
Wuyishan is closely related to Zhuzi’s Neo Confucianism. Zhu Zi’s Neo Confucianism was gestated, formed and developed in Wuyi Mountain. Zhu Xi went to Wuyi Mountain from the age of 14 to the age of 71. He studied, wrote, taught and lived in Wuyi Mountain for more than 50 years. Zhu Zi’s Neo Confucianism sprouts, matures and spreads here. The Academy of Wuyi jingshe founded by Zhu Xi in Wuyi Mountain became the most influential Academy at that time. There were more than 200 scholars who were directly employed by Zhu Xi in Wuyi Mountain. Many of them became famous Neo Confucianism scholars and formed an influential Neo Confucianism school. Under the influence of Zhu Xi, many scholars of calendar agency took preaching as their own duty. They chose the foundation and built the room at the foot of Wuyi Mountain and wrote and taught the disciples. Only in song and Yuan Dynasties, there were 43 famous scholars who founded academies in Wuyi Mountain, making Wuyi Mountain a famous mountain of Neo Confucianism. Professor Cai Shangsi, a famous historian in China, praised: “the Eastern Zhou Dynasty came out of Confucius hill, and the Southern Song Dynasty had Zhu Xi. Ancient Chinese culture, Mount Tai and Wuyi. The activities of Zhu Xi, his disciples and posterity in Wuyishan have left extremely precious cultural relics for Wuyishan, such as the ruins of the Academy Wuyi jingshe, the inscriptions of Zhu Xi and other theorists rich in philosophy, “the deceased’s hair”, “self-cultivation oriented”, “wisdom moving, benevolence and quiet”, the existing “Wuyi shendaobei” with the largest number of words written by Zhu Xi, and the social storehouse founded by Zhu Xi, etc. These cultural relics are precious to the study of the rise and fall of Zhuzi’s Neo Confucianism and Confucianism as well as the ideal history of Chinese philosophy, and are treasures of Chinese traditional culture.