The Loulan Kingdom is located in the northern border of Ruoqi County, Bayinguoleng Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, China today. It is 7 kilometers west of Lop Nur and 7 km south of the Peacock River.
The earliest discoverer of the Kingdom of Tloulan was the Swedish explorer Sven Hedin. At the beginning of March 1900, the Heding expedition came to the Rob Wilderness along the left bank of the dry Peacock River, only to discover that their shovel was accidentally lost in the camp last night when they crossed a desert. Heding had to get his assistant back to look for it. The assistant quickly retrieved the shovel and even retrieved several pieces of wood carvings. Heding was so excited to see the debris that he decided to excavate the ruins. In March 1901, Sven Hedin began excavation, and found a large number of cultural relics such as a stupa and three temples, wooden carved building elements with Greek art and culture, five baht money, and a letter of Lu Jianwen. Later , they found many beacon towers in the southeastern part of the ruins, which continued to an ancient city buried in sand by the west bank of Lop Nur. This is the ancient city of Loulan that shocked the world.
Daloulan was originally a small farming half-tillage and semi-herd tribe living with the water. The Loulan tombs and the large number of fine stone tools found in Lop Nur area show that Loulan people are nomads. After the opening of the Silk Road, business exchanges between the East and the West increased day by day, bringing unprecedented prosperity to the Loulan economy. Extraterritorial civilizations, especially the Han civilization The introduction of Loulan accelerated the development of urban civilization for Loulan people.
In history, Loulan belonged to one of the thirty-six kingdoms in the Western Regions and was adjacent to Dunhuang. It had a close relationship with the Han Dynasty before and after AD. Ancient Loulan s records are based on the records of Hanshu · Xiyu Zhuan, Fa Xian and Xuan Zang. Hanshu. Western Region Biography records: Sheng Shanguo, whose real name is Loulan, Wang Zhixu Mucheng, went to Yangguan for 600 miles, to Chang an for 6,100 miles. Households were 570 , with a mouth of 44,000. Xian Xian said: The land is rugged and barren. The layman s clothes are the same as the Han land, but the blanket is brown. His king is obedient to the law. There are more than 4,000 monks who learn about theravada. The end made a very simple description: From this point on, I traveled more than a thousand miles northeast to the homeland of Nabobo, that is, Loulandi.
Dloulan City is the political, economic, and cultural center of the Loulan Kingdom in the early days. It extends from Dunhuang in the east, to Xi and Weili in the northwest, and to Ruoqi in the southwest. The south and north of the ancient Silk Road were separated from Loulan, and Loulan City was surrounded by mountains and rivers. As a transportation hub town in the abdomen of Yazhou, it played an important role in the cultural exchange between the East and the West. As early as 77 BC, the Loulan area was an oasis with developed agriculture in the Western Regions. By the Tang Dynasty, Loulan had almost become a remote synonym. In Li Bai s Sixiaqu , there was Wish to lower the sword down, straight For the temporary Loulan. It is a mystery that the important towns in the Western Regions that once flourished quickly exited the historical stage after the 3rd century AD. The cultural relics excavated from the Loulan site have shocked the world, including the precious Jin Dynasty ma nuscript Warring States Policy, and archeologists have also unearthed a female mummy in the Loulan tombs. It has been determined that it has been 3,000 years since. The body of the dead body is complete and beautiful, and it is named Loulan Beauty . Other cultural relics include finely crafted Han Jin, Han Five Baht money, Guishuang Kingdom coin, Tang Dynasty coin, Han language and Hui Luwen Jane.
The walls around the ancient city of Diaolan have collapsed in many places, leaving only the walls standing intermittently. The urban area is square with an area of about 100,000 square meters. The panorama of Loulan is ancient and dignified. The ruined building ruins in the city have no vitality, and it looks extremely desolate and tragic.
Overlooking the ancient city of Loulan, there is a 烽燧 in the northeast corner of the city. Although it has been repaired at different times in different dynasties, it can still be seen from it that it is the earliest style of Han Dynasty architecture.
To the southwest of Luan is the Sanjianfang site. This 100 square meter house is built on a high platform. One of the three rooms is larger than the east and west. At the beginning of this century, Sven Heding had excavated a large number of houses in the east room. Clerical wooden slips. It is speculated from the remaining large wooden frames of the three rooms of the West Chamber that this place was once the seat of Tuntian Government Office in the city.
I continued to the west, a large mansion. Inside the courtyard, there are three houses arranged side by side in the north and south. In the ancient city, the building of this courtyard is also relatively pompous. In contrast, most of the houses on the south side of the mansion are small, scattered and run-down. According to the unearthed documents, it is speculated that the frame structure houses adjacent to the three rooms are the ruins of the official office of Loulan City.
The ancient city of Dloulan was once a paradise for people to live and reproduce. There is a huge wave of Lop Nur by her side, surrounded by a clear river in front of her door. People are fishing on the blue waves, hunting in the dense poplar forest, and people are bathing in the gifts of nature. According to the Shui Jing Zhu, after the Eastern Han Dynasty, due to the diversion of the Zhubin River in the middle reaches of the Tarim River, Loulan suffered from severe water shortage. Soler in Dunhuang led 1,000 troops to Loulan, and summoned 3,000 soldiers from the three kingdoms of Shanshan, Xi, and Guizi. He injected water into the river by day and night to enter Loulan, alleviating Loulan s water shortage. But after that, although Loulan people made the greatest efforts and attempts to dredging the river, the ancient city of Loulan was eventually abandoned due to water cutoff.