Thirty years ago, the Terracotta Warriors and Horses Museum was still a field. On March 29, 1974, farmers in Xiyang Village, Lintong County, Xi an, Shaanxi Province dug out the pottery pieces of the Qin Terracotta Army while drilling a well. . French Prime Minister Jacques Chirac said after the visit: There are seven miracles in the world, and the discovery of the Qin Terracotta Pit is the eighth miracle.
North On the northern foot of Laoshan in Shaanxi Province, the dense forests cover a group of large-scale and unique-looking buildings. This is the famous Terracotta Warriors and Horses Museum of Qin Shihuang. Qin Terracotta Warriors Pit was found in 1974, 1.5 km east of Qin Shihuang s Mausoleum. After years of large-scale drilling and research by archeologists, this is a large secondary burial pit in China s first feudal emperor Qin Shihuang s tomb. Since then, this once deserted field, which was piled with rocks, has become lively. It is like a huge magnet attracting numerous Chinese and foreign tourists: Not long ago, reporters revisited here again.
If you put the terracotta warriors together with the sculptures of ancient Greece and Rome, you may not see the exquisite art of the terracotta warriors and horses. What kind of magic method is it exactly? Mr. Yuan Zhongyi, the old curator of the Terracotta Warriors and Horses Museum, once said, Why are Terracotta Warriors is a miracle? I have summed up three words: big, many and true. Big is that the pottery is as big as a real horse. It is often seen in museums in the past. Some pottery figurines are relatively small, usually 20-30 cm, up to 60-70 cm. Terra-cotta warriors are the same size as human beings, which surpasses people s imagination on the senses. When the amount reaches a certain level, certain changes occur on the senses. It will naturally produce a sense of strength and sublimeness in art. There are more than 8,000 pieces of Qin figurines unearthed in pits 1, 2, and 3 of terracotta warriors and horses, and there are more than 6,000 pieces in pit 1 alone. Sighing Extrem e, terrible .
The reporter learned that curator Yuan has never this this place since the discovery of terracotta warriors and horses. Don t look at more than 8,000 cultural relics dug out. But he can be as specific as several Jiazhen. He introduced: Terracotta warriors and horses were carved out one by one, not made with molds. Many people have sculptures. According to my preliminary statistics, during the excavation and restoration process, I found that there are 87 producers names. These people are all Teacher, there are some apprentices below. I reckon that a master takes 10 apprentices, that is, 870 people. I estimate that thousands of people have participated in this work. This is a miracle in the history of Chinese and foreign sculpture arts. There are many people, one person and one style. There are artisans from the central court and artisans from all over the country. Most people think that the terracotta warriors and horses are similar. Because we have been doing it for a long time, we c an see who made it. The court artisans made it. From the image, the works are all strong men, very heroic, and the craftsmanship from folk craftsmanship is relatively fresh and lively, both tall and thin, which are related to their living environment . As a whole, the craftsmanship of the palace craftsmen is higher., More proficient. The level of folk craftsmen is high or low, which is mainly reflected in the proportion of the body, such as the length of the arms, the hand The size is different. In addition, the level of the level can also be seen from the facial expressions. Therefore, Chirac proposed that it is the eighth wonder of the world, and people around the world have accepted it.
Of course, while the unearthed cultural relics have confirmed some historical facts, they have also brought more problems to experts and scholars. Due to their special age, background, and large amount of unearthed terracotta warriors, they have created far more unsolved mysteries than any . Unearthed cultural relics. These mysteries involve all aspects of politics, society, technology, and culture.
I used to think that Chinese sculpture art really developed after Buddhism was introduced to China after the Northern and Southern Dynasties. After the discovery of terracotta warriors and horses, it can be seen that Chinese sculpture art has reached a very high level in the Qin Dynasty There are six methods of ancient folk sculpture. In addition, in terms of sculpture style, Qin s sculpture art is different from the West. The West is highly realistic. The Qin figurines are not like this. It is realistic, but with a certain amount of freehand.
On the bronze swords unearthed from terracotta warriors, you can see that these swords were very sharp when they were unearthed. They were basically as shiny as new, and some were not rusted at all. Deal with. According to previous records, this technology was invented in Germany in 1937 and in the United States in 1950, but it was a miracle in the history of metallurgy that China mastered this technology more than two thousand years ago.
What kind of process was the bronze sword unearthed in ancient times? Some people have done various simulation experiments. The Beijing Institute of Metallurgical Technology has done an experiment. The old vinegar, soil nitrate and chromium ore were heated together, heated to 800 degrees, turned into a liquid, and coated on the surface of the sword. Someone also rubbed the surface of the sword with sapphire, and could apply chromium to the surface of the sword. In addition, like an unearthed copper carriage, a car has more than 3,000 parts, which are very complicated to combine. Its cover is 2 square meters, and its thickness is 2 to 4 mm. It is cast. This has very strict temperature requirements. If it is too high or too low, it will be holes and holes , as well as the umbrella on the car. First cast into a copper block. Forging technology is used on the side, which involves the proportion of alloy amount, if the tin content is too much or too little, it will not work.
The reporter learned that the production of terracotta warriors is also a problem. How was such a large scale made? Now it is done in sections, and they are piled together after burning out. At that time, it was burned out. There are two problems that are difficult to grasp. How can the shrinkage ratio of mud from wet to dry be grasped? How to grasp the shrinkage ratio from softening to induration during firing? There are also places where terracotta warriors and horses are thick, and some are thin , and they are put into the kiln for burning at the same time. And how about the proportion of mud and quartz sand? How were technical problems like this resolved at the time? It is still not clear.
On the west side of the Terracotta Army Museum, there are two villages, one is Xiyang Village and the other is Xiahe Village. Thirty years after the terracotta warriors were discovered, today s Xiyang Village has shrinked due to the discovery of the terracotta warriors and the construction of the Qinling Ruins Park. Many farmers have moved to the east of the Terracotta Warriors Museum. The reporter found in the interviews in these two villages that there was not much arable land here. According to villagers, there was a lot of arable land. Although each house now has arable land, the area is much smaller than before. Most farmers rely on the terracotta warriors and the Qinhuangling area Some of the tourist attractions have started a business, including restaurants, cars, construction workers, tour guides, and souvenirs. In short, whatever they do, it has to do with local tourism. Thanks to tourism, farmers have gradually become rich.
Yang Yu, a farmer in Xiyang Village who cares for the trees in the Qinling Ruins Park, told reporters: Before the terracotta warriors and horses were not found, it was very poor. Farmers had 7 points of work a day. At that time , foreign girls were unwilling to marry here. There is no food to eat, and there is an extreme shortage of water. The development of the tourism economy in the past 30 years has dramatically changed the two villages. Some farmers bought two cars, and everyone in the village lived in two small buildings. In the village, the reporter met an old lady who was sewing handicrafts. She said that she can sew five a day, and one can sell for 5 yuan, and this craft is very easy to sell. It s all foreigners, and there are many foreigners with high noses. The old woman told reporters with a smile.
The vast majority of farmers in Qinling Town, where the Terracotta Warriors and Horses are located, are now doing business near the museum. Anyone can speak a few foreign languages. Many farmers are indeed rich by traveling and eating.
When visiting the Terracotta Army in 1998, the then President of the United States, Clinton said: The Terracotta Army is great, and the people who find it are also great. There are many foreign heads of state who visit the Terracotta Army, but like Clinton, they must see their names by name. It s the first time to find someone. As a result, Yang Zhifa, one of the terracotta warriors and horses found that year, had the pleasure of meeting Clinton. Regarding the discovery of terracotta warriors, there are still many different opinions after 30 years.
What happened to the Terracotta Army at that time? According to Terracotta Warriors Yuan Yuan recalled that in March 1974, Xiyang Village was drilling a well. At that time, there were three production groups, two in each group, and Yang Xinman, a farmer in Xiyang Village, was a political captain at the time. After the pottery figurines were dug out, they didn t know them, and they were littered everywhere. Later, Zhao Kangmin of Lintong County Cultural Center collected these things and let the farmers pull them back with a trolley. Yang Xinman was the farmer who was sent to the County Cultural Center at that time. Prior to this, local farmers had seen pottery figurines more than thirty times, but did not know what it was. This was still the case in 1974. The old lady in the village still burned incense buns, saying that it was a god of plague, and broke the figurines heads, and some were placed in the fields as scarecrows to catch birds. When Lao Yuan went there , he picked out many pieces of pottery figurines from the side of the road and in the garbage dump, and recovered many copper arrows from the scrap purchase station.
A female interpreter at the Terracotta Warriors Museum told reporters, For many years, the terracotta warriors and horses founder Yang Xifa, a peasant who was more recognized, was a reporter. Not long ago, the reporter found the signature of the Terracotta Warriors Museum . Selling books, now 71-year-old Yang Zhifa, when the reporter proposed to interview him, he did not expect to be rejected by shaking his head. Asked why he didn t accept the interview, the old man mumbled and said a word: annoying. What makes this old man so upset? Apparently, other local farmers scrambled to find the right to find him unhappy. Someone proposed to take pictures with him. He promised in one gulp, but took one photo and charged 50 yuan. Although Lao Yang wants to collect money, there are still many tourists who want to take photos with him. The reporter learned from the side that, in addition to Clinton s meeting with him, the Japanese NHK TV station also invited him to Japan to specifically describe the process of discovering terracotta warriors. But the dissatisfaction of other farmers with the discoverers has made the old man sitting at the museum merchandise department signing and selling books leisurely all day.
The reporter then found Yang Xinman in the Qinling National Heritage Park. At the age of 67, he now signed a book in a jade shop opened by a private owner. The boss gave him 1,000 yuan a month. When the reporter saw him, he was in front of him. In addition to displaying a certificate of discovery of terracotta warriors issued by the Cultural Museum of Lintong County (now Lintong District), a huge composite statue of him and terracotta warriors was hung on the side wall. The old man also expressed dissatisfaction. He Said that there were nine people who found terracotta warriors at that time, and now there are only four left. He hoped that in his lifetime, he would get a result that satisfied him. What results does Yang Xinman want? Why do these people value discovery so much? The person in charge of the Shaanxi Provincial Cultural Relics Bureau said: It is still driven by interests. Their request was to indicate the name of the founder in the place where the well was drilled that y ear. Issue discovery certificates and give them certain material rewards and compensation. In response, the head of the Terracotta Warriors and Horses Museum emphasized: We can only say that it was collectively discovered by farmers when they drilled wells. Nothing else will be done , and the country has never set such a precedent!
In an interview with the Terracotta Warriors and Horses Museum, the reporter found that the discoverer signed sales book has become a local landscape, but often caused some unnecessary disputes. For example, during an interview with Yang Xinman, due to the signature problem , tourists and the jade shop waiters quarreled, causing everyone to watch and seriously affect the image of Xi an. In the Terracotta Warriors and Horses Museum, some wild guides (that is, guides who have not been trained and evaluated and issued employment permits) used various deceptive and suggestive means to make tourists buy books signed by Yang Zhifa. Inside the museum, the reporter followed behind a tour group and heard the tour guide introduce this: This is where the peasants and horses were found when the peasants drilled the well. Only those who discovered the terracotta warriors were Yang Zhifa. He is now retired. It is the honorary curator of our museum and enjoys the treatment of the curator. Mr. Yan g is usually very busy. He wants to participate in academic activities and meet foreign guests. He occasionally signs in the museum. I dont know if he is here or not (in fact, Yang Zhifa is almost every day) Let s look at it later. After that, Wild Guide was simplified and deleted. After a while, he took tourists to the place where Yang Zhifa signed, and when he came in, he exclaimed: You are lucky today, he is here. ”Then” Wild Guide ”Introduced, Yang Zhifa printed only 3,000 pictures of terracotta warriors and horses and sold them out immediately. In fact, this unlisted picture book is everywhere in Xi an s tourist spots, and the price is different in each place. The reporter learned from the Terracotta Warriors and Horses Museum that so far the museum has only been honorary curator of Yuan Zhongyi. It stands to reason that Yang Zhifa, as one of the people who discovered the terracotta warriors and horses, can sign a book for sale in the museum. However, aft er being bewildered by some wild guides, there was a little deception in them, because every time a book was sold, the tour guides had different amounts of rebates.
Here, not only the wild guides are eating discover people, but also the authentic tour guides are also also involved. Such a rush to eat discover people, so many enthusiastic tourists shouted!