Haikou City is located on the tropical coast. The tropical resources present diversity and are rich in natural features and scenery on the seashore. Haikou has a history of nearly 1,000 years since its inception. Since the opening of the port in the Northern Song Dynasty, Haikou City has formed a corresponding scale with the development of Hainan. In the long river of history, Haikou City merges with the rapids of the history of the motherland, surging along with the pulse of the history of the Chinese nation. Haikou was founded in 1926 and liberated in 1950. In 1988, Hainan established the Provincial Office of the Special Economic Zone, Haikou City became the capital of Hainan Province, the province s political, economic, technological, cultural center, and transportation, post and telecommunications hub.
[Geography] Haikou City is located at 19 ° 57′04 ”-20 ° 05′11” north latitude and 110 ° 10′18 ”-1010 ° 23′05” east longitude. It is located in the northern part of Hainan Island , bordering Qiongzhou Strait in the north, and faces Hai an Town, Guangdong Province, 18 nautical miles away; facing the sea in the northwest; facing the Qiongshan City across the Nandujiang River in the east; border. Haikou City starts from Pandan in the east and reaches Fengnan in the west with a distance of 25 kilometers at both ends; Cangxi in the south and the sea to the north with a distance of 15 kilometers at both ends. The city s land area is 234.44 square kilometers, and the sea area is 530 square kilometers. The existing urban built-up area is 33.64 square kilometers. The planned urban land area is 1,127 square kilometers.
[Topography] Haikou City has a slightly east-west band shape, and is dominated by coastal stepped landforms. The sea-formed landforms dominated by marine product terrace structures account for about 47% of the city s area, followed by aeolian landforms, volcanic landforms, flowing waters, artificial landforms, and biological coastal landforms. The city is mainly the coastal plain, with low terrain, high in the south and low in the north, sloping from the southwest to the northeast, and the western and southern suburbs are 40-60 meters above sea level. The northern part of the city is the first, second and third step plains with an elevation of 20-20 meters. The altitude near the southern Fuling Water is 69.8 meters, which is the highest point of the city.
[Climate] Haikou City is located in the tropical northern margin of low latitudes and belongs to the monsoon tropical climate. It has long sunshine duration and large radiant energy. The annual average sunshine duration is 2225 hours and the radiation dose is 122 kcal / cm2 . The annual average temperature is 23. 8 ℃, the highest average temperature is 28.0 ℃, the lowest average temperature is 18.8 ℃, the annual frost-free period is 346 days; the annual average precipitation is 1,691 mm, the daily rainfall is more than 0.1 mm, the rainy day is 150 days; the annual average evaporation 1847 mm, dryness 1.08 degrees, average relative humidity 85%. Northeast and east winds prevail throughout the year, with an average annual wind speed of 3.3 m / s. A severe cold current invades in winter, bringing a short-term cold; from May to November, there are tropical cyclone effects.
[Land] The existing land area of Haikou City is 236.44 square kilometers. Among them, 5843 hectares of arable land, 4219 hectares of forest land, 8750 hectares of land for urban and village use, and 2,600 hectares of water area. There are 7 soil types, 12 subclasses, 29 soil genera, and 54 soil types. The main soil types are yellow red sandy soil, thin organic matter layer, middle volcanic ash young brick red soil, and coastal sandy soil. Among them, brick red soil is widely distributed with a large area, accounting for about 31% of the city s land area.
[Water System] The longest river in Hainan Island crosses the east of the city into the sea. The mainstream of the Nandujiang River is 5.05 kilometers long in the urban area, with an annual runoff of 6.099 billion cubic meters. The tributaries of Nandu River flowing through the urban area includes Haidian River, Baisha River and Henggou River. There are also small rivers such as Meishe River and Wuyuan River. There are Shapo, Yongzhuang, Meiya and Nabu reservoirs, with a total storage capacity of 9.64 million cubic meters. Haikou City is located in the estuary river network of the lower reaches of the Nandu River, with abundant groundwater resources and extensive diving distribution. The underground confined water is located in the Leiqiong Basin, with a total water thickness of 200-350 meters. The recoverable volume in the two sections of Haikou and Xiuying is 270,000 cubic meters per day and night. The underground thermal mineral water is located in the Cenozoic thick layer in the nor theast of the Qiongbei Artesian Basin, with a distribution area of about 200 square kilometers.
[Plant] The vegetation in Haikou is dominated by shrubs and bushes. The main vegetation includes dwarf shrub communities distributed in the lava platform in the south, sparse shrub communities in the central marine sedimentary terraces, and tropical coastal sandy habitats in the northern coastal desert areas. Community, a tropical coastal grass beach community distributed on the beach grass beach. Natural vegetation is mainly wild shrub and grass plant populations common in tropical regions of the south. The urban area is dominated by artificial vegetation. Artificial vegetation consists of various cultivated species of tropical flora, such as eucalyptus, casuarina, camphor, acacia, palm, rubber, oil palm, bamboo and flowers, and other economic forest and garden tree species, as well as longan, litchi, coconut, carambola, banana And other tropical and subtropical fruit trees. Crops include rice, corn, peanuts, sorghum, yam, sugar cane and various vegetables. The marine plants are mainl y seaweeds such as Jiangli and Pseudophyllum. The plants in Haikou are evergreen, and there are more than 200 families and more than 1,300 varieties of trees and flowers. Coconut trees in the urban area are lush, known as the Coconut City.
Animals [Animals] The terrestrial animals in Haikou are mainly farmed livestock, including pigs, cattle, sheep, chickens, ducks, geese, quails, pigeons, bees, etc. Wild animals include hares, pangolins, turtles, tadpoles, salamanders, butterflies and snakes. Aquatic animals include more than 100 kinds of marine fish such as mackerel, grouper, belt fish, catfish, more than 30 kinds of freshwater fish such as herring, grass carp, tilapia, and more than 10 kinds of shrimp such as prawns, prawns, and crab, Crabs, and shellfish such as loach, hairy owl, and oysters. In recent years, Haikou City has accelerated the construction of the vegetable basket project and vigorously developed animal husbandry. A number of excellent animal germplasm resources have been settled in Haikou.
[Beach] Haikou City faces the sea to the north and northwest, with an area of 530 square kilometers and a coastline of 131 kilometers. The average water temperature of seawater is 25 ° C, the highest is 34 ° C, and the lowest is 17.2 ° C. 1 meter transparency, up to 2 meters. The salinity of shallow sea is 29.6% -31.8%. Most of the seabed is flat, with soft mud as the main component, followed by silt; the seabed near the beach coast is dominated by fine sand. The seawater quality is rich in organic matter and inorganic salts. The area of the sea area within the depth of 60 to 100 meters is hundreds of square kilometers, and the area of allow seas and tidal flats within the depth of 10 meters is about 60 square kilometers. Most of Haikou s coasts have gentle slopes, wide and continuous shorelines, and fine white sands. There are holiday beaches, Baishamen Beach, Xixiu Beach, Tropical Ocean World, and Guangdong Railway Station South Station Pier Beach and other seas ide scenic areas and recreation areas. The offshore waters are clear, the wind is gentle and the waves are flat all year round, and there are many suitable coastal swimming areas.
History [History] Haikou originated from the Han Dynasty and opened its ports in the late Song and early Yuan Dynasty. Haikou first appeared in the Song Dynasty and has a history of more than 900 years. There were Haikou Pu in the Song Dynasty , Haikou Port in the Yuan Dynasty, Haikou Capital, Haikou Office, Haikou City in the Ming Dynasty, Haikou Commercial Port, Qiongzhoukou in the Qing Dynasty, and Haikou Town in the early period of the Republic of China. From the Han Dynasty, Haikou belonged to Guangxi; in 1370 AD, Haikou was placed under Guangdong. In the year 627 of the Tang Dynasty, Haikou began to belong to Qiongshan County. In December 1926, Haikou was designated from Qiongshan County and established a city independently. On April 23 , 1950, Haikou City was liberated. In 1956, the State Council classified Haikou City as a prefecture-level municipality in Guangdong Province. On April 13, 1988, the Seventh National People s Congress passed a resolution on the establishment of Hai nan Province and the establishment of the Hainan Special Economic Zone. Hainan Province was established, and Haikou City became the capital of Hainan Province. The long river of history describes the long and tortuous course of development of Haikou City, also describes the glorious revolutionary tradition of Haikou City, and displays a rich landscape of humanities and historical sites. The Five Gong Temple was built in 1889 to commemorate Li Deyu, a famous minister of the Tang Dynasty, and Li Gang, Li Guang, Hu Yuan, and Zhao Ding, who were derogated to Hainan Island and spread culture to promote the development and exchange of Hainan culture. The Hairui Cemetery, which was built in 1589 to commemorate the Qing Dynasty s Qiong Dynasty official, Hairui, and the Xitian Temple, which was built in 1567 to commemorate the Ming Dynasty s famous King Wang Zuo. Gukou, Shanghai Wusongkou, Guangzhou Humen Fort, and Xiuying Fort, which are the four major turrets in the late Qing Dynasty, and other historical sites; there is the site of the first congress of the Qiongya of the Communist Party of China held in June 1926 to commemorate the long-term adherence to the Qiongdao Revolution Struggle and heroic battle across the sea.
From July to August 2001, Haikou City adjusted the original 6 townships, 2 towns, 15 street offices, and 120 neighborhood committees to 3 townships, 3 towns, 17 street offices, and 114 community residents. Committee. Xinhua District: Zhongshan Sub-district Office and Xinhua Sub-district Office are merged into Zhongshan Sub-district Office; Jinyu Sub-district Office is added to the north of Industrial Avenue in the management area of Chengxi Township. Zhendong District: Zhendong Sub-district Office and Bo ai South Sub-district Office are merged into Bo ai Sub-district Office; Bailong Township s Bailong and Guoxing Sub-district Offices are revoked; the airport in the original Haifu Road Sub-district Office management area is delimited Road, Airport West Road, and Nanhang East Road to the south of the Lantian Street Office will be added. Xiuying District: Revoke Rongshan Township and Fengnan Township, and merge and set up Xixiu Town. Approved by the State Council on October 16, 2002 (Guo Han  No. 92): Revoke Xiuying District, Xinhua District, and Zhendong District of Qiongshan City and Haikou City, with the original Xiuying District, Xinhua District, Qiongshan City and Haikou City, The administrative divisions of Zhendong District include Xiuying District, Longhua District, Qiongshan District, and Meilan District of Haikou City.