The 28th session of the UNESCO World Heritage Committee meeting in Suzhou was approved on July 1 to include the tombs of King Goguryeo, King Tombs and Nobles of China in the World Heritage List. The tombs of King Goguryeo, King Tombs and Nobles included in the World Heritage List this time includes the Five Women s Hill City, Domestic City, Maruyama Castle, 12 Kings Tombs, 26 Noble Tombs, Good King Monument and General Tomb No. 1.
Goguryeo (sentence is pronounced as go), which is recorded in history books as gaojuya, referred to as Juli or Juya, lived in Northeast China from the first century to the seventh century BC . An ancient nation.
In the second year of the Zhao Dynasty (37 BC), Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty assisted the people to establish their country in the Goguryeo County of Xuanzhang County in the Western Han Dynasty (now in Xinbin County, Liaoning Province), hence the name Goguryeo. The capital was later built in Yingsheng Bone City (now Wunv Mountain Town in Huaren County, Liaoning Province), three years after the Western Han Dynasty (AD 3), the capital was moved to the domestic city, and at the same time, Weinayan City (both in Ji an City, Jilin Province)), Weinayancheng, also known as Maruyama Castle, moved to Pyongyang in the fourth year of Northern Guangxi Shiguang (AD 427). During the strong period of Goguryeo, its sphere of influence included the eastern part of Jilin Province in China, the northeastern part of Liaoning Province, and the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
668 In 668, Goguryeo was destroyed by the Tang and Silla Alliance forces on the Korean peninsula. It lasted for 705 years in history. The main activity of Goguryeo was within the jurisdiction of the Central Plains dynasty in Chinese history and maintained a subordinate relationship with the dynasties of the past. It was a local government restricted and controlled by the Central Plains dynasty. It is strongly influenced by the Central Plains dynasty in politics and culture.
Gaogouli s economy focuses on agriculture and fishery and hunting. The common Chinese character memo, which has been found in the Good King Monument, Zhongyuan County Monument, Ran Mou epitaph, and a large number of inscription bricks and inscriptions on the tile supports this . Goguryeo created a culture with national characteristics, but it was deeply influenced by the Central Plains culture in the middle and late stages, and Confucian, Buddhist, and Taoist cultures flourished; especially Goguryeo s solid mountain city, majestic tombs, and brilliant ancient tomb murals have become an important part of the Chinese civilization. section.
Gaogouli, a local ethnic minority in China that had dominated northeast China and the northern Korean peninsula for 705 years, originated in Huanren County in the eastern mountainous area of Liaoning. On July 1, as one of the Kings of Goguryeo, Colosseum, the Five Women s Mountain, and the Goguryeo Ruins of Ji an, Jilin Province were included in the World Cultural Heritage List.
According to historical records, in 37 BC, King Fuyu of Northeast China fled from Fuyu to the south in order to avoid brother persecution, and established the Goguryeo Kingdom with the “Booming Bone City” as the center. According to the expert s research , the Yuansheng Bone City should be the site of Xiagu City near Liaoning County, Liaoning Province, and Wunvshan Mountain City is its mountain city. From here, the Goguryeo government gradually expanded its field of activity, created Goguryeo culture, and added a glorious stroke to the history of Chinese culture.
桓 From the Renren County, you can see the Five Women s Mountain towering 8.5 kilometers away, with a flat top and a tank-like shape. Drive down the winding road to the mountain, you will reach the ruins of the mountain in the Goguryeo era 2000 years ago. Shancheng mainly occupies the mountain top platform and the eastern hillside. The main peak of Shancheng is 821 meters above sea level, and the west, north and south are cliffs with a height of 120 meters. Stone masonry walls were built on the gentle slopes of the east and southeast.
The eighteen plate is the main road to and from the mountain city during the Goguryeo period, which twists and turns along the valley. The road is 1-1.5 meters wide and 938 meters in total. Nowadays, the stone steps and railings up the mountain have been newly built, but in order to experience the hardships of Goguryeo people and save energy, tourists here are more willing to take the eighteen plate ancient trail.
There are three gates in the Wunvshan Mountain City, which are located on the east wall, south wall and west of the mountaintop. The Eighteen Pan straight west gate is about 3 meters wide, with stone walls built on both sides. Remains of existing doorsteps, door hinge foundation stones, and doorman s room.
登 Ascending the mountain city through Ximen, I saw that the mountain city used the precipitous mountain situation to form a relatively complete defense system, which fully demonstrated the arrogance of the king city. According to reports, the plan of the mountain city is slightly boot -shaped, about 1500 meters long from north to south, and 300-500 meters wide from east to west. The scale is large and the system is complete. It can be divided into two parts on the mountain and the mountain., Residential buildings , cisterns, lookouts, outposts, etc.
In recent years, archeologists have unearthed many Goguryeo ruins in this mountain city. One of the large buildings has a base length of 13.5 meters and a width of 5 meters. There are seven foundation stones, six foundation stones and a column pit. It indicates that it should be a Liukaijian building; typical utensils such as the earring pots of Goguryeo were excavated in the early days. Judging from the scale and grade of the building, it is presumed to be the palace ruins. The residential building complex is composed of more than 20 housing sites, which are densely distributed. They are all half-crypt buildings with a square or rectangular plane and a folding ruler. Most of the relics unearthed were iron golems and armor pieces, presumed to be barracks sites. More precious is that an iron fetters was also unearthed in the mountain city. This is the only torture in Goguryeo relics that has been discovered in China, and it has important research value.
The observatory stands tall and stands thousands of meters high. It is the commanding point of the Five Women s Mountain and Mountain City. From here, overlooking the largest Huanren Reservoir in Liaoning Province below the mountain, the scenery is very magnificent.
The water source is undoubtedly very important to maintain a living in the mountain city. There are two water sources at the top of the Mount Wu Nu: one is located on the west side of the middle of the mountain city, and a stone-made rectangular pool named Tianchi is 12 meters long, 5 meters wide, and 2 meters deep. Important water source. There is a small well next to the pool, and the pool water is filtered into the well for people to use. The other is called Yinma Bay, which is a natural spring eye. It is located on the east side of the mountain city. It is not dry all year round, but it has less water.
According to historical records, in 3 AD, the second king of Goguryeo, King Ruri, moved the city of the King from the Five Daughter Mountain City to the domestic city (Ji an City, Jilin Province), but the mountain of the Five Daughter Mountain was still the early King City and birthplace of Goguryeo Much attention. For hundreds of years since then, the mountain city continued to be built, and it has always been a major town and traffic hub of Goguryeo. During the Goguryeo period , this mountain city was never captured by the enemy.
In addition to the rich ruins of Goguryeo, the natural scenery of Wu Nu Mountain is magical and beautiful, including Crescent Pass, Feilai Peak, Yixiantian, Fenglinpo, Hansong Pine, Wunong Pine and so on. They complement each other s human landscape and achieve perfect unification.
Nangwu Nushan Mountain City has become a famous tourist landscape in eastern Liaoning Province, and is the leader of tourism in Huanren County. Locals believe that after being listed as a World Heritage Site, more and more tourists from home and abroad will come here to visit ancient times.
The The domestic city and maru city in Ji an City, Jilin Province are located on the plains and nearby mountains, respectively, forming a pair of adjunct capitals in Goguryeo. King Goguryeo usually lives in the plain city, but retreats to the acropolis in the mountains when in danger.
For This pair of King-style King City truly and completely reflects the plain and mountain city form of King Goguryeo. It was approved to be listed on the World Heritage List by the 28th Session of the World Heritage Committee of UNESCO on July 1 .
Domestic City is located in Ji an City. In 3 AD, the second-generation king of Goguryeo, Liuming Ming King, moved the King City from Li Sheng bone city (now in Huaren County, Liaoning Province) to domestic city.
According to the latest excavation report issued by Chinese archaeologists, the domestic city is slightly square, and the walls of the east, west, south, and north are 554.7 meters, 702 meters, 751.5 meters, and 730 meters, respectively. The total circumference is 2738.2 meters. The stone walls are built inside and outside, and the middle layer is made of soil and stone. Due to its long history and many repairs, most of the city walls have lost their original state. At present, the North Wall is well preserved, and the East Wall is basically abandoned. Only the foundation remains. The western section of the South Wall and the northern section of the Western Wall still have sections as high as about 4 meters. The city wall is built with stone bars and closed in layers. Two gate sites can be identified during the Goguryeo period, of which gate sites have been found on the west side of the north wall that have not been found in previous literature records.
According to archeologists, too many Goguryeo ruins have been found in the domestic city. Due to the discovery of the outbuildings belonging to the palaces of the domestic city of Ji an City, the local government has moved out of the domestic city for the protection of cultural relics. The site of Lishuyuanzi in the northeast of the city has unearthed one white jade earring, 20 gold arrows, 1 gold hook, and there are many lotus patterns, animal faces, honeysuckle tiles, and a lot of rubble and many foundation stones. It proves that this should be an important architectural site in Wangcheng.
The Maruto Castle, 2.5 km north of the Domestic City, was an important mountain castle capital in Goguryeo in the early and mid-terms. According to records, it was built in 3 AD. The city is surrounded by mountains as a barrier and the valley exit as a gate, which fully reflects the traditional Chinese concept of feng shui. Its defense is strong, but the city is spacious and free, and the environment is beautiful. It cleverly integrates military, production and life.
The city wall of Maruyama Castle is built on the ridge, with a circumference of 6,947 meters. There are currently 7 city gates found. Except for the 1st gate site, which is built on a flat ground, the other 6 gate sites are distributed on the hillside or the top of the strategic defense. Main points. Among them, there are two gates in the south, east and north walls, and only one in the south. With the palace site as the core, the seven gates constitute the main military defense system of Maruyama Castle. Nanliaomen (Gate No. 1) is located in the middle and inner depression of the south wall. The terrain is dangerous and it is an important channel to enter Maruyama Castle.
The building materials of the Maruyama Castle wall are staggered inside with pointed fusiform stones at both ends, and wedge-shaped stones are inserted between the pointed strips on the side to form the inner and outer wall surfaces. There is a female wall on the mountain wall.
The investigation and cleaning results of the Jilin Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology revealed that there are 4 building sites and 38 tombs in the city. The building sites are the palace site, the lookout, the residence of the dead and the cistern .
Palace The palace site in Maruyama Castle was built around 198 AD and was destroyed by war in 342. It is 95.5 meters long from north to south and 75 meters wide from east to west. The palace is deep into 4 levels of terraces, with different heights. The terraces are distributed from west to east in 4 rows of large-scale building ruins, and each row of building ruins is provided with a drainage system. The building has square, rectangular and octagonal shapes.
From the analysis of the overall layout of Shancheng, the buildings of Maruyama Castle are mainly distributed around the palace site and near the important gate site of the Huicheng. Large-scale buildings are not found in other areas. On the one hand, it reflects that although Maruyama Castle has been used as the king twice, its main function is still mainly military defense; on the other hand, it shows that the site of Yamashiro Palace should have the dual functions of the palace and the government.
Xinhua News, Jiangsu Channel, Nanjing, July 1st. Ji an, an ancient city surrounded by green hills and green water, is like a lotus leaf standing in the lake water, and the monument to the good king who has stood in the city for more than 1500 years is like a drop of dew on the lotus leaf., Dazzling. On July 1, the monument to King Tai and the King Tomb were approved as World Cultural Heritage by the 28th World Heritage Committee Meeting.
At the foot of Yushan, 4 kilometers east of Ji an City, Jilin Province, on the Tonggou Plain, there is a large-scale large square altar-stepped stone chamber tomb-this is the tomb of the 19th-generation King of Goguryeo , Good King. 200 meters northeast of the mausoleum, there is a tall, dignified and darkened stone stele. This is the good king stele known as the first monument in the east.
According to historical records, the Great King Monument was built in the tenth year of Emperor Yi of the Eastern Jin Dynasty (AD 414) and has a history of 1590 years. It was slightly trimmed with a complete huge breccia tuff column. The monument is 6.39 meters high and varies in width on all sides, ranging from 1.34 to 2 meters. The weight of the monument is about 37 tons. The entire stele stood directly on an irregular granite slab without any external force.
King Tai is famous for his virtue, and he ascended the throne at the age of 18 in 391 AD. He died at the age of 39. The nickname King Gang Shang Guang Kai Tu Da Jing Ping An is a good king. Expert research shows that the 22 years of King Tahoe is an unprecedented period of prosperity and development in the history of Goguryeo. With his strong economic and military strength, he explored the east and occupied the west, occupied Liaodong and exorcised the pirates, invaded the Han River, and descended to help Yugou. Territorial expansion.
The King Taihao monument was erected by King Changshou in honor of his father s dedication. The inscriptions are engraved on all sides of the stele. There are 44 vertical lines of inscriptions on all sides, with boundaries between the lines. Each line has 41 characters, and the original text is 1775 characters. The thousands of years of abrasion, as well as the burning of moss and improper characters in the late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China, caused some damage to the monument. The readable characters are currently only about 1,600 characters. The inscription of the inscription is generally clear, but the historical and archeological issues involved in sentence breaking and textual research are controversial. Therefore, Chinese and foreign scholars wrote this book and said that they have their own opinions.
The inscription on the Good King Tai Bei is roughly divided into three parts. The first part is short and consists of 6 lines. It mainly describes the myths and legends of the founding of Goguryeo, and the state of wealth and prosperity during the reign of the Good King. The second part is where the inscription center is located, occupying 22 lines. A more detailed record of the situation where King Tai led his army to attack the city slightly. The third part occupies 16 lines, which records the number and source of the smokers who keep the tomb for the Good King and the related to the tomb keeping system.
According to experts, there are only three written cultural relics known in the history of Goguryeo, and the Great King Monument is the one with the most narrative content. Because there are very few records of this nation in the literature, the historical record of this stone monument with 1,775 Chinese characters is relatively complete, covering a wide range, and it originated from the heyday of the Goguryeo regime., System, tradition and its relationship with Silla, Baekje and the Japanese archipelago are of great significance.
In fact, this invaluable stele has been completely annihilated by barren smoke for ten centuries. It wasn t until 1877 (three years of Guangxu) in Tongrenjian County that a book named Guan Yueshan (secretary or the like) discovered the stone, printed several inscriptions, and then introduced it to Beijing. In this vein of mountains and rivers, there have been prosperous years with hundreds of canopies, Zhongming Dingshi, and even the source of many influential historical storms and vortices.
After the discovery of the Great King of the King Monument, it has become the subject of intense research in China, Japan, North Korea, Europe and the United States. In 1928, all circles of Ji an Industry and Commerce raised funds to build a wooden structure stele pavilion, and the Great King Monument was protected. After the founding of New China, the national and local governments attached great importance to protection, repaired the cracks on the monument, and successfully carried out chemical sealing to prevent weathering and erosion , which played a very good role. In 1982, the majestic antique monument pavilion was rebuilt. Last year, bulletproof glass was installed on all sides of the monument, and a special person was sent to protect the monument closely. In addition, the government also relocated the residents around the Good King Monument and the Tomb of King Wang, and rectified the surrounding environment, so that the monument and the Lingyao echoed each other and became inte resting.
At the foot of Longshan, 5 kilometers northeast of Ji an City, Jilin Province, there is a giant stone tomb shaped like an Egyptian pyramid, the general s grave. The general s tomb was built at the beginning of the 5th century . It was constructed of more than 1,100 square rectangular granite bars, which were filled with pebble and gravel. It is the representative of the stepped tomb in the thousands of Goguryeo tombs in Ji an and one of the most magnificent tombs in China. On July 1, the 28th World Heritage Committee meeting in Suzhou approved the inclusion of the Tombs of King Goguryeo, King Tombs and Nobles of China in the World Heritage List.
The Goguryeo mural tomb, known as the Treasure House of Art in Northeast Asia, records the special culture of the ancient Northeast minorities in ancient China and is a wonderful work of the 5,000-year-old Chinese civilization. Tombs of Chinese nobles in Goguryeo, including some mural graves, have recently been included in the World Cultural Heritage List.
Although the Goguryeo regime was established in 37 BC, the mural tomb appeared more than 300 years after that. Archaeologists have confirmed that a number of Goguryeo mural graves have been cleared and excavated in China and North Korea in the middle and late 20th century. According to the information disclosed so far, there are 33 in China and 68 in North Korea. Goguryeo mural tombs are mainly concentrated in Ji an City, Jilin Province and North Korea. Of these mural tombs, most of them are earthen stone room tombs, accounting for more than 90%.
Currently According to current findings, the early Goguryeo mural tombs appeared around the first half of the 4th century. The contents of the murals reproduce the social life of Goguryeo, aristocracy, home, banquet, singing and dancing, hundred operas, travel. The painting method is generally plastering white ash on the stone wall, and then painting on the white ash. Its mural works better reflect the unique traditions of the nation, such as the horn-to-horn movement that resembles today s Japanese sumo, the scene of horseback hunting, etc., as well as the tigers, deers, wild boars, bears, mules, whites that are common in the Changbai Mountain forest Rabbits, pheasants and other animals.
According to historical records, the Goguryeo people are brave and warlike, and there are many scenes of the army and war in early murals. Ji an has a three-room tomb built in the 5th century. The theme of the first room mural is social life, and a siege map on the north wall is wonderful. On the left side of the screen is a city wall, which is tall and zigzag, the gate tower and the tower are towering, and there is a house in the city. Outside the city gate, the two generals wore armored armor and rode armored warhorses. Two pawns underneath the corner hugged to the ground. A man watched the fighting on the wall. The figures are lifelike and lifelike. The image of the joist force in the second and third rooms is only seen in the murals of the Ji an ancient tombs and is very precious. Experts speculate that the owner of the tomb is a Goguryeo aristocracy, most likely a military general.
In addition, Goguryeo s early murals also painted patterns of palaces, pavilions, stables, wells, guards, maids, cows, horses, dogs, flowers, trees, sun, moon, stars, and other patterns.
As the Central Plains dynasty entered the Wei and Jin period in the 4th century AD, Buddhism had entered the Central Plains from India at that time, and the Goguryeo national government, which was settled on the northern border, began to be influenced by Buddhism. Archaeologists discovered the lotus flower in a very small image on the moss well, a mural tomb dominated by social customs in the early days.
From the 6th to the 7th century, the craftsmen began to use flat-walled granite stones as the four walls, and painted directly on the stone walls. The mural content at this time was mostly occupied by the Four Gods of Suzaku, Xuanwu , Qinglong and White Tiger. In addition, this type of mural also depicts Fuxi Nuwa, Huangdi Shennong, immortals, monks, Taoists, etc., which have the characteristics of the Central Plains culture, showing rich Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism.
In this period, cinnabar, earth red, stone yellow, pink yellow, white powder, and stone green were the main colors, and the colors were much richer than in the early days. Frescoes of this period include Tomb of the Four Gods and Tombs of the Five Helmets at Tomb Nos. 5 and 5, etc., which are mostly distributed in today s Korea.
In addition, in the process of transforming from social life to Four Gods, there is also a type of transitional content, which dates from the middle of the 5th century to the middle of the 6th century. The mural content is mainly decorative patterns , such as lotus, Cloud motif, colorful ring pattern, tortoise shell pattern.
Because the written materials left by Goguryeo are scarce and scattered in ancient Chinese books, the rich Goguryeo tomb murals have become important archeological materials for experts and scholars to study the history, culture and customs of Goguryeo.
After rain erosion, shedding and mildew are problems faced by many Goguryeo murals. In order to maximize the protection of murals, most of the Goguryeo mural tombs in China have been tightly sealed and protected. In order to meet people s desire for viewing, the relic protection workers used a combination of underground corridors and digital video during the mural tomb maintenance process. Visitors can view some of the “live broadcast” Goguryeo tomb murals without stepping into the tomb. Beautiful.