Dongqian Buddha Cave is one of the Dunhuang Grottoes. Located on the banks of the canyon 35 kilometers south of Qiaozi Township, Anxi County, Gansu Province. Twenty-three existing caves include murals, eight caves for statuettes, three caves in Dongyan and five caves in Xiyan, mostly single-room caves. Rectangular central pillar caves, circular dome caves, and square flat-top caves are formed. Among them, caves 2, 4, 5, and 7 are rectangular central pillar caves, and there are still still some statues of Buddha and Buddha, but most of them are from the Qing Dynasty Rebuilt, the statue of the monk Xixia in Cave 4 is dressed in traditional clothes and is well preserved. The murals are distributed on four walls, and the content can be divided into five categories: scripture paintings, tantra images, statue paintings, decorative patterns, and portraits of donors. The changes include: Western Pure Land Change, Pharmacist Pure Land Change, Manjushri Change, Puxian Change, Nirvana Change, Water Moo n Avalokitesvara, etc.; Tantra images include mandalas, Tantra Mandala (Tibetan), Eleven-faced Guanyin Change, Eight-armed Guanyin Variations (Hanmi or Miscellaneous); statue paintings include illustrations, shakya road maps, meditation Buddha statues, Guanyin statues, etc.; decorative patterns include cave top decoration, round light, backlight, borders, etc., patterns include lotus, Honeysuckle, flowers, roll grass, flames, orbs, etc.; the portrait of the donor is still left. The frescoes are most complete in Cave 2.
From the perspective of Buddhist beliefs, most of them belong to the comprehensive type of religion, which is a combination of explicit and dense, Chinese and Tibetan. In terms of the style of the mural content, the Han Dynasty images of the Xianjiao Jing changed into the Central Plains style. Tibetan secrets were transmitted from Tibet, and they all have certain Tibetan, Indian, and Nippon influences. The artistic style and content are basically the same as those of Yulin Caves 2, 3, 4, and 29. It is a branch of Yulin Caves Western Xia and Yuan Dynasty arts. However, it also has certain characteristics, which is a reproduction of the early cave shape in the Western Region. For example, the second, fourth, fifth, and seventh caves are all rectangular central pillars and caves. Nirvana pictures are drawn behind the central pillars. Chuan Puxian change, Qianshou Guanyin change, Shuiyue Guanyin change. This interlaced picture has already appeared in Yulin Grottoes. However, placing the s cene of Xuanzang s study of scriptures in an important position on the picture of Shuiyue Guanyin s transformation, and also the guard of the Great Brahma King s volley, made Xuanzang s study of scriptures the center of the transformation, and the form was unified and harmonious.
The painting art of Dongqian Buddha Cave is entirely a combination of Chinese-made variants and variants. Regardless of the content or style, it is represented by Cave 2. Multiple styles coexist in a cave. The eight saints, the seven disciples and the princes of various countries have real images, strong line drawings, and high spirits. In the Tantra Mandala, the strong dancing Dangang has a strong Tibetan style, especially the hand-cranked branches, charming figure, and special costumes of Guanyin, which have a strong Indian influence and are unique to Dongqian Buddha Cave. Dongqian Buddha Cave, like Yulin Cave and Mogao Cave, can see the cultural exchange between China and India through Tibet after the 11th century.
The main murals include: Pure Land Change, Nirvana Change, Pharmacist Change, Manjushri Puxian Change, Water Moon Guanyin Change, Tantric Mandala, and other popular popular themes in Xixia. They are also interspersed with mandalas, Moi Jing, bird and animal lace, double dragon and phoenix Decorations such as, sitting Buddha, sacred Buddha, King Kong, Lux, flame, etc. From the point of view of painting techniques, this is an exquisite and rare Xixia art treasure house. The unique art style of the Xixia people has been perfectly reflected here. In particular, the water moon Guanyin, which passes through the north and south walls of the second cave, is delicate and meticulous. Guanyin sits leisurely on the emerald seat, with a few purple bamboos behind it, surrounded by colorful clouds and green water, and a bright moon in the distance. Gao Zhao, on the bank of the water, Xuan Zang s study of the scriptures is a part of the warp change, especially the water-moon avalokitesvara change. Inthe creation of the artist, the historical facts of crossing the Yumen Pass, sneaking across the Hulu River, and heading west to India to learn from the Scriptures combined with the imaginary world of the gods formed the unique characteristics of the Guanyin of the Xixia mural in Guazhou.