Beijing is the capital of the People s Republic of China. China s political, cultural and domestic and international exchange center is one of the world s historical and cultural cities and ancient capitals. As early as 700,000 years ago, the primitive people community Beijing people appeared in the Zhoukoudian area of Beijing. Beijing was first seen in the recorded name Thistle. In 1045 BC, it became the capital of the kingdoms of thistles and swallows. From Qin Shihuang s unification of China in 221 BC to 937 AD, Beijing has been a major town in northern China and the capital of local government. In 938 AD, Liao, which ruled northern China, was accompanied by Beijing (now known as Yanjing); later, the Jin , Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties used this place as the capital for more than 650 years. The People s Republic of China was established on October 1, 1949, and Beijing became the capital of New China.
Beijing is located at 39 ° 56 north latitude and 116 ° 20 longitude east. It borders Shanxi and Inner Mongolia Plateau in the northwest, connects the North China Great Plain in the south, and nears the Bohai Sea in the east. Square kilometers. The west, north, and east are surrounded by mountains. The main rivers include Yongding River, Chaobai River, and North Canal. Beijing belongs to the warm temperate and semi-humid climate zone, with four distinct seasons, short spring and autumn, and long winter and summer. The annual average temperature is 13 ° C, the coldest in January, with an average temperature of -3.7 ° C, the hottest in July, the average temperature is 25.2 ° C, and the annual average rainfall is 507.7 mm. No frost period 189 days.
At the end of 1998, Beijing s permanent resident population was 10.915 million, and there were still more than 3 million floating people every day. The birth rate was 6 ‰, the mortality rate was 5.3 ‰, and the natural population growth rate was 0.7 ‰, a decrease of 1. 2 thousand points. All 56 ethnic groups in China live in Beijing. The Han population has the largest population, and ethnic minorities account for 3.5% of the city s population. Among them, the Hui, Manchu and Mongolian populations have the largest population.
Beijing is divided into 13 districts and 5 counties: Dongcheng District, Xicheng District, Chongwen District, Xuanwu District, Chaoyang District, Haidian District, Fengtai District, Shijingshan District, Mentougou District, Fangshan District, Tongzhou District, Shunyi District, Changping District, and Daxing County, Miyun County, Pinggu County, Huairou County, Yanqing County.
In 1998, there were 2.81 million people engaged in scientific and technological activities in the city, an increase of 2.9% over the previous year. Expenditure on science and technology activities was 19.17 billion yuan, an increase of 14.8%, of which 5.23 billion yuan was spent on research and development, an increase of 19.4%, accounting for 2.6% of GDP. The city s technology market signed 20,724 contracts with a contract value of 8.16 billion yuan, of which 7.39 billion yuan was the technology transaction amount. The city has applied for 6,321 patents and 3,800 patents.
The city s education actively reformed the school management system, and comprehensively promoted the transition from test-oriented education to quality education. Primary school graduates are exempted from examinations and entered the junior high school. All the reforms have been put in place; the original 502 majors in higher education institutions have been adjusted to 249; six suburban branch campuses have been formed as bases. The swollen swollen spleen-drop mother ─ rushed to escape? / SPAN> In 1998, the city recruited 16,000 graduate students, 62,000 undergraduates and college students from ordinary universities, and secondary vocational and technical education. 30,000 people, 308 thousand people in general education and 104 thousand people in adult education. 60,000 talents of various types for higher education, 72,000 middle-level professional and technical personnel, and 99,000 for adult education.
The city has 22 municipal cultural centers, 320 cultural stations, 23 public libraries, 101 museums (including the former residences of historical celebrities), 74 municipal cinemas, and 38 professional art performance groups. Beijing Xinhua Bookstore has branches all over the city, with a broadcast coverage rate of 98.5%. Mass cultural activities have been carried out extensively, and summer cultural squares, and cultural science and technology to the countryside activities have been well received by the masses. The protection of cultural relics has received widespread attention from the society, and the Temple of Heaven and the Summer Palace have been listed as World Cultural Heritage by the United Nations.
In 1998, the average wage of the city s employees was 12,300 yuan, the per capita disposable income of urban residents was 8,472 yuan, and the per capita consumption expenditure was 6,978.8 yuan. The consumption structure is becoming more and more reasonable. The Engel coefficient of urban residents is 41.1%, a decrease of 2.6 percentage points from the previous year. The per capita net income of farmers is 4,029 yuan. The balance of savings of urban and rural residents was 22.872 billion yuan, of which the balance of savings deposits of urban residents reached 20.63 billion yuan, and the balance of savings deposits of rural residents reached 22.4 billion yuan. The per capita housing area of urban residents reached 14.86 square meters, and the per capita living space of rural residents was 27.6 square meters. 19 pieces of 5.86 million square meters of affordable housing construction projects established by the municipal government have begun construction.
Beijing is an ancient capital with a long history and culture. It has the world s largest palace, the Forbidden City, the Temple of Heaven Temple, the Royal Garden Beihai, the Royal Garden Summer Palace, Badaling, Mutianyu, the Simatai Great Wall , and the world s largest quadrangle palace. Historic site. The city has a total of 7,309 cultural relics and historic sites, including 42 national-level cultural relics protection units and 222 municipal-level cultural relics protection units.